Oregon’s Bad Wolf Management Plan Coming Home To Roost (As Predicted)

Wolves Howling Tumblr Gif

November 1, 2015

 Oregon is ready to delist wolves.

Anyone who’s read the Oregon wolf “management plan” could see this coming a mile away. There was major push-back against “the plan”  in 2010 because the number of breeding pairs needed to reach delisting was and is ridiculously low. So here we are, five years later and Oregon’s woefully inadequate wolf “management plan” is ready to kick in.

Please attend the ODFW meeting in Salem, Oregon on November 9th to speak out against the plan and delisting.

“ODFW staff believe gray wolves have met the criteria to be delisted from the state Endangered Species Act (ESA) and will recommend this action to the Fish and Wildlife Commission at their Nov. 9th meeting in Salem.

The meeting begins at 8 a.m. at ODFW Headquarters, 4034 Fairview Industrial Drive SE, Salem. It is open to the public and public testimony will be accepted during the meeting. Consideration of wolf delisting is the only item on the agenda. Written comments will also be accepted until Friday Nov. 6 at 5 p.m. and can be sent to odfw.commission@state.or.us More information about the meeting is available at” http://www.dfw.state.or.us/agency/commission/minutes/15/11_november/index.asp


Washington state has a far superior wolf “management plan”. 

To reclassify from state threatened to state sensitive status: 12 successful breeding pairs present for 3 consecutive years, with 4 successful breeding pairs in each of the three recovery regions.

To delist from state sensitive status: 15 successful breeding pairs present for 3 consecutive years, with 4 successful breeding pairs in each of the three recovery regions and 3 successful breeding pairs anywhere in the state.

In addition to the delisting objective of 15 successful breeding pairs distributed in the three geographic regions for 3 consecutive years, an alternative delisting objective is also established whereby the gray wolf will be considered for delisting when 18 successful breeding pairs are present, with 4 successful breeding pairs in the Eastern Washington region, 4 successful breeding pairs in the Northern Cascades region, 4 successful breeding pairs distributed in the Southern Cascades and Northwest Coast region, and 6 anywhere in the state.



But Oregon only requires four breeding pairs for three consecutive years in Eastern Oregon  to “be considered for statewide delisting”.  In Western Oregon, the goal is also four breeding pairs. The plan is divided into three parts. Phase three states:

“Under Phase 3 a limited controlled hunt could be allowed to decrease chronic depredation or reduce pressure on wild ungulates if confirmed wolf predation leads to declines in localized herds.”

Even in a state as progressive as Oregon, wolves are not safe. They will eventually be subjected to a wolf hunt and probably much sooner than everyone thinks. This proposed delisting will open a wolf Pandora’s box that will never close.

But let’s be blunt, the ONLY reason wolf management plans exist is to placate ranchers and hunters. Wolves don’t need managing. What we’ve done, by bringing wolves back from the brink in the lower 48, is place them in a cage they can’t escape. Wild wolves are not free. As I type this wolves in Montana and Idaho are being hunted and trapped. And if the USFWS has their way, all wolves across the lower 48,  will lose their ESA protections.

Rick Bass put it most eloquently, when describing the untenable conditions we force wolves to live under:


Wolves have been poached in almost every state they disperse to with the exception of California. Remember Echo, the little wolf who traveled hundreds of miles to the North Rim of the Grand Canyon, only to be shot by a trophy hunter, using the “coyote excuse“? This is one of the deadliest threats to dispersing wolves Those two words, give the shooter a perfect alibi. It’s “he said, he said”. Or “she said, she said”. The wolf is dead, it’s the shooter’s word that counts.The sad stories go on and on, we all know them. And of course, even though wolves are still “supposedly protected” by the ESA across the continental US the USFWS does virtually nothing to curb or stop poaching. Poaching investigations go nowhere,  and most poachers go unpunished. The “coyote excuse” is accepted again and again by the USFWS as gospel.  But we all know the real reason why there are few prosecutions of wolf poachers, the USFWS isn’t interested in wolves dispersing out of the Northern Rockies/Pacific Northwest or Great Lakes, to reclaim lost habitat. Wolves currently inhabit less than 5% of their former range. Yet does it come as a surprise that wolf dispersal has been stopped cold outside of the areas I mentioned?   The odds are stacked against them as they face the likes of Wildlife Services, poachers, hostile state governments, hunters and ranchers. Wolves are trapped by man-made boundaries they dare not cross. Boundaries that hold no meaning for them but ultimately contribute to their deaths.

Wolves are unique, sentient beings, incredibly smart wild dogs devoted to their families. Yet hunted wolf populations are subjected to a deadly game of annual Russian Roulette, where wolf mothers, fathers, puppies and pack mates are brutally killed in the name of “management”.

Once pack structure is disrupted, it’s very difficult to keep the family together, as the plight of the alpha male of the Lamar Canyon Pack (755m) demonstrates. After losing his mate, the iconic, 06 Female, to a hunter’s bullet in 2012, he’s still attempting to restore his pack, trying to connect with his FOURTH potential mate. We have Rick Lamplugh, the author of In The Temple of the Wolves: A Winter’s Immersion In Wild Yellowstone, for shining a light on wolf 755m’s sad story.

One Bullet Kills an Entire Pack

Apr 02, 2014 | Rick Lamplugh
Wolf 755M alpha male of the Lamar Canyon Pack_Rick Lamplugh
Wolf 755M (right) was the alpha male of the Lamar Canyon Pack seen here with 889F (left) the fourth wolf with whom he has tried to restart a pack after his mate was shot and killed outside Yellowstone Nat’l Park.
 The results of legal wolf hunt are presented to the public as palatable statistics. Officials tell us, for example, that in the 2012-2013 hunts outside Yellowstone National Park twelve park wolves were killed. Six were collared wolves that–when alive–provided valuable research data. One of those collared wolves was the famous alpha female of the Lamar Canyon pack, dubbed “06” by wolf watchers.

Such statistics don’t begin to tell the whole story of the impact of one bullet on the delicate social structure of a pack, an arrangement much like that of an extended human family.



Can you imagine, in human terms, someone randomly killing your mother, father, or children and still remaining a whole, functional family? The answer is obviously no. But because wolves are at the mercy of fish and game agencies who manage wildlife for hunters, the wolf’s family structure and what happens to those bonds is never considered. A wolf, is a wolf is a wolf as far as they’re concerned. Knock one down and they’ll just make more. How primitive, how insensitive, how backward. And that is what the wolves in Oregon are facing and what Montana and Idaho wolves are experiencing. And what the wolves in the Great Lakes were suffering until a federal judge placed them back on the Endangered Species List in December 2014. Don’t expect them to remain protected if the Obama USFWS has their wayy.

To treat wolves as disposable, never considering their family bonds and tight social order, is a grave injustice. BUT as long as they are “managed” under the iron fist of fish and game agencies, who DO NOT represent their interests, they will remain prisoners in their ancestral home.


ODFW Believes Gray Wolf Should Be Delisted

Salem, Ore.— ODFW staff believe gray wolves have met the criteria to be delisted from the state Endangered Species Act (ESA) and will recommend this action to the Fish and Wildlife Commission at their Nov. 9th meeting in Salem.

The meeting begins at 8 a.m. at ODFW Headquarters, 4034 Fairview Industrial Drive SE, Salem. It is open to the public and public testimony will be accepted during the meeting. Consideration of wolf delisting is the only item on the agenda. Written comments will also be accepted until Friday Nov. 6 at 5 p.m. and can be sent to odfw.commission@state.or.us More information about the meeting is available at http://www.dfw.state.or.us/agency/commission/minutes/15/11_november/index.asp

Wolf management in Oregon is guided by the Wolf Plan, which was originally crafted in 2005 by a broad group of stakeholders balancing competing interests. The Plan called for initiating a process to consider delisting wolves from the state ESA when eastern Oregon had a population of four breeding pairs of wolves for three consecutive years, an objective met in January 2015.

State ESA law gives the Fish and Wildlife Commission authority to list and remove species from the Endangered Species List.



Eastern Oregon Wolves Could Be Facing Delisting In 2015


OPB | Sept. 16, 2014 2:21 p.m. | Portland

Gray wolf populations are on the rise in Oregon, but that may not necessarily be good news for the animals.

The Statesman Journal reports  that the state may have enough potential wolf couples in 2015 for the minimum requirements to delist the animal.

“We were told in the beginning that when wolves first came to the county, we were waiting for that day,” said Todd Nash, wolf committee chairman for the Oregon Cattleman Association, in an interview with the newspaper.

According to Oregon’s Endangered Species Act, the state Department of Fish and Wildlife must verify four breeding pairs in eastern Oregon for three consecutive years.

In 2012, there were six pairs and last year the organization located four pairs. It’s predicted that 2014’s count won’t be complete until early next year, but early reports show more than four couples.

By removing wolves from the state’s endangered species list, ranchers would be permitted to use lethal force to defend their animals in more situations.

According to ODFW , shooting a wolf is considered a misdemeanor, which carries a maximum penalty of $6,250 fine and a year in jail.



Help Change Oregon’s Wolf Management Plan

June 21, 2010

Oregon Yearling Wolf Killed By Wildlife Services 2009

Guest Post by Katie, Oregon resident and wolf advocate.

June 21, 2010

The Oregon Wolf Management Plan is currently under a 5-year review and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is accepting comments from the public until June 30th. However, before I tell you about the plan and its obstacles, here is a brief history of the Oregon wolves.

In Oregon, the last gray wolf was eradicated from the state by the 1940s. It was almost 60 years before another one was seen. The first wolf to migrate to the state in 1999 was recaptured and sent back to Idaho. In 2000, two more gray wolves made the journey, but sadly they were both killed; one by a car and one by bullet. The fact that wolves were returning was undeniable, so the state decided they needed a plan. The ODFW sat down with wolf advocates and livestock owners to decide what should be done. Though the livestock owners may have gotten more say in the plan, wolf advocates seemed glad to simply be getting wolves back in the state. The result was a wolf management plan that everyone agreed on. Oregon became one of the first states to willingly open the doors for gray wolves to return.

In 2008, a female Idaho wolf was located in Oregon using the signals from her radio collar. The gray wolf was identified as “B-300”. To bring more attention to wolf recovery in Oregon, the members of a local environmental group, called Oregon Wild, nicknamed the wolf “Sophie”. Eventually finding a mate, Sophie soon became the alpha female of the largest pack in Oregon with 10 wolves total; the Imnaha Pack. Another pack of four wolves was also discovered in 2008. Together, the two packs made up Oregon’s known gray wolf population of 14 individuals.

The plan seemed perfect. Wolves were returning and things seemed to be going well. However, in 2009, two yearling wolves were convicted of killing 29 domestic animals from five different incidents. When non-lethal techniques failed, Wildlife Services was sent in and killed both wolves. Personally, I don’t blame the wolves, they were just pups. Being too young to hunt elk, it was either that or starve. They had no known pack and just seemed to have traveled into Oregon from Idaho on their own. It is possible that their family was killed by a rival pack, but I believe it is more likely that they were killed for “management” purposes.

Now, in 2010, history seems to be repeating itself as two more wolves are being targeted by WS. With only 14 known wolves in the entire state, killing two individuals would be a huge loss. ODFW has also issued seven kill permits to local ranchers, which could spell disaster for such a fragile population.


Oregon current Wolf Management Plan included three phases for population recovery:


 “Wolves may be considered for statewide delisting once the population reaches four breeding pairs for three consecutive years in eastern Oregon…. The plan calls for managing wolves in western Oregon as if the species remains listed until the western Oregon wolf population reaches four breeding pairs.”

This means when there are four packs in eastern Oregon and four in western Oregon, wolves will be stripped of ESA protection statewide.

The average gray wolf pack size is about 8 wolves. If packs in Oregon follow the norm, then roughly 64 wolves will be present when they are delisted. A recent study suggests Oregon could support up to 2200 wolves and still maintain a healthy ecosystem. I don’t know about you, but 64 wolves doesn’t sound like recovered to me.


 “Once the wolf is delisted, more options are available to address wolf-livestock conflict. While there are five to seven breeding pairs, landowners may kill a wolf involved in chronic depredation with a permit. Five to seven breeding pairs is considered the management population objective, or Phase 2.”

Five to seven breeding pairs? Oregon currently has two breeding pairs and seven landowners have been given permits to kill wolves. Again, five to seven breeding pairs is 40-56 wolves if they are the average pack size.


“Under Phase 3 a limited controlled hunt could be allowed to decrease chronic depredation or reduce pressure on wild ungulates if confirmed wolf predation leads to declines in localized herds.”

Sound familiar? Idaho and Montana initiated hunts mere months after wolves were delisted. The difference is there were 1500 wolves in Montana and Idaho when the first hunts began. In Oregon the hunt could start with less than 100.

To read the full Oregon Wolf Management Plan, go to http://www.dfw.state.or.us/Wolves/docs/wolf_plan.pdf

As you can see, the Oregon Wolf Management Plan is weak and gives livestock owners plenty of tools to deal with wolf depredation. However, the Oregon Cattle Association wants more power. Since the plan is under a 5-year review, OCA is suggesting changes to the plan that will suit the cattle industry, not wolves.


1. Delisting rules (combine the whole state and begin delisting when there are 4 breeding pairs statewide)”

Four breeding pairs would be approximately 32 wolves. Even if each pack was as big as Sophie’s that would still only be 40 wolves, which is definitely not recovered.

2. “Relocation, location, and translocation eliminated”

The current management plan allows for “problem” wolves to be relocated to the closest wilderness area. The closest wilderness area is usually where the wolf came from before it found the livestock. This part of the plan needs to be strengthened, not weakened.

3. Ownership of lands ,IE; state lands is the only lands the Oregon ESA has authority on”

They are asking to change Oregon’s ESA. Not only would this be bad for wolves, but it would also allow anyone to shoot any endangered animal if it was on their property. Remember, these are changes they want now, not when the gray wolf population is 60+, but when there are only 14 wolves in Oregon.

To see the full testimony from the Oregon Cattle Association, go to: http://www.oregonwild.org/fish_wildlife/bringing_wolves_back/OCA_Testimony.pdf

To see the testimony from Oregon Wild, a local environmental group, go to: http://www.oregonwild.org/fish_wildlife/bringing_wolves_back/oregon-wild-wolf-plan-review-testimony-3-12.10/

ODFW is currently accepting comments from the public about changes they should make to the plan. ODFW has not said what they are thinking of changing but the first draft is scheduled to be done some time in August. The deadline to comment is June 30th.

Email your comments to ODFW.Comments@state.or.us


Talking Points:

 1. Make sure to let them know you want the wolf plan STRENGTHENED, not weakened. Tell them eight breeding pairs statewide are NOT enough. Mention the study that states Oregon could support 2200 gray wolves on its landscape.

 2. Wildlife officials need more options to relocate wolves. Suggest national or state parks, or larger wilderness areas.

 3. Ranchers need to do everything possible to protect their livestock before any action against wolves is even considered. Suggest proper fencing, fladery, radio collar activated sounds, guardian animals, lambing and calving sheds, frequent patrols of pastures, placing livestock in barns at night, and tracking packs to avoid placing cattle in areas where wolves are known to be.

4. Tell them wolves are more valuable alive than dead, because they are. Support this idea by stating Yellowstone Park makes $7-10 million annually from just wolves (The GYA brings in $35 million wolf generated dollars). Explain the positive impacts wolves have on the environment, like increasing beaver populations (beavers are Oregon’s state animal). Wolves keep ungulates moving, which prevents them from over-browsing vital beaver and songbird habitat. Wolves keep ungulate herds healthy by culling the weak, sick and old.

5. Tell them to increase the funding of the wolf plan. Currently the wolf plan is very underfunded and only has a few members on its management team.

6. If you don’t live in Oregon, you can choose to boycott the state if they weaken the management plan. Tell them you will not buy anything from Oregon or visit the state unless the plan is strengthened.

7.  Think of the Imnaha wolf pack and how much they need our help. Their exigence as a pack is in danger. How sad it would be to lose the only breeding pair of wolves in Oregon.


Don’t forget to email your comments to ODFW and voice your opinion about the Oregon Wolf Management Plan. Comments@state.or.us

Sources Cited:







Top Wolf Gif: Tumblr

Middle Photo: ODFW

Middle Photo: Courtesy Rick Lamplugh

Bottom Photo: ODFW

Posted in: Oregon wolves, Ranching and Hunting, Wolf Wars

Tags: Oregon, bad wolf management plan, delisting, ODFW, ranchers, poachers, wolf dispersal

The URI to TrackBack this entry is: https://howlingforjustice.wordpress.com/2015/11/02/oregons-bad-wolf-management-plan-coming-home-to-roost-as-predicted/trackback/

RSS feed for comments on this post.

14 CommentsLeave a comment

  1. I think that pro-wolfers should have a say in what happens to these animals. Why is it always hunters or state officials or the useless ODFW or USFWS that have the only say in the fate of Wolves, Bears, Mountain Lions, etc, etc? Last I heard this is 2015 not 1915. I for one say NO, LEAVE OUR WOLVES, BEARS, MOUNTAIN LIONS, COYOTES, FOX, freaking alone. This was God’s country first, and our wildlife’s second, then the First Nation’s, then the almighty white man, who it appears, should have stayed in Europe! The damn arrogance of today’s idiot politicians needs to be stopped now. Get rid of the lot of them and get someone in office who cares about this Country and it’s wildlife, and won’t always have their hand sticking out for some unearned cash.

    Liked by 1 person

    • God, how I wish the Northeast Woodlands Indians had sent these creatures packing and turned the ships around. Thanksgiving, yeah sure. Day of Mourning is more appropriate. Nothing but misery ever since, and no sense of respect for life, just greed. White devils indeed.

      How long till we can expect hunting for Oregon’s wolves our country’s grizzlies? It really is shocking, that we’ve become a killing nation – between guns and no respect for animals.

      Liked by 1 person

    • OK, first thing you should know is that a “wolfer” was one who killed wolves. He killed them with poison, traps, gunfire, stomping on the trapped, whatever.
      You CANNOT use that word meaning its opposite – unless of course you ar a republican strategist.

      Back to the issue – Nabeki has encapsulated the problem: 77 wolves is not enough to remove from ES listing due to the fact that Idaho is the source population and the Plan clearly states that. The Idaho 10 month season targeting the 600 or 700 wolves claimed to be there, with the express (stated ) intent to bring them down to 151, so reduces the gene pool of variations that Oregon wolves will be vulnerable to continued reduction in alleles, moving toward homozygosity – which is by definition equivalent to the mating of siblings, and will lead to a crash due to inbreeding depression and other effects of holding populations down that low.
      Phase 3 of OR Plan gives hardly any more numbers – certainly not enough to make a difference in outcome.
      I have written 3 different comments to the Commission and Wolf Recovery Project on the particulars of this ,
      of the analyses showing that hunting as management & lethal management causes greater livestock depredation –
      ORegon’s Plan was surely a bow to the livestock industry, almost all of which, if you have ever attended public meetings, you will clearly understand, lives in a fantasy world, and includes the fantasy that public lands and wildlife should be subject to their whims and desires. Unfortunately, THESE are a major poaching cadre, and get away with it, as well as recognizing that endangered species protection exposes them to increased govt oversight.

      In the end, the hunting lobby, who also lives in dire fear that their finances will drop if wolves are allowed to return, use the power gained by being the major source of DFW funding.
      So they both lobby against the wolf’s increase.

      In going over OR hunting laws, I see that they have utterly ignored the recent findings that both cougar and wolf hunting increase livestock depredation, for slightly different reasons.

      Since the corruption of cattlemen and hunters is not going to end, EVER, until they themselves end, THEY must be the final targets of all who seek intact ecosystems and reduction of the cruelty of killing wolves, and every other species.
      Game farming is obscene, and unfortunately, the Commission is composed of largely hunters. – including the female on board (I don’t know about the female legal counsel)

      So, wolves WILL lose, heartbreakingly, lives will be lost. But unless you act to materially reduce the number and financial power of both hunters and livestock owners, this cruelty and atrocity will Never end.

      I recently watched “Cowspiracy” which film shows that livestock industry accounts for 51% of greenhouse gases/global warming. Bring your efforts to using such information to kill two murderin’ cowhands with one stone.


      • Those of you with an eye on the republicans of western states now KNOW that their intent is to privatize all public lands, turning the west into a polluted pit with no predators impeding the farming of elk, bighorn, etc.

        While I have seen the cynical use by western democrats and their president to throw wolves under the wheel, it is up to YOU to support an anticorporate candidate who is also a public lands preservationist.
        Because none have come out so far who will return public lands to recovering ecosystems with full suite of fauna, it’s up to YOU to make sure that this is the single issue upon which you will base your vote.
        There was a local jerk here who in response to the coming wolf return, said”no wolves, nohow.” I leveled a n angry letter denouncing him (I had met him, and had known he was a tool of the wealthy interests previously, and used every weakness I could find – I also sent letters to other supervisors concerning his rejection of the majority of his public, science, etc. He shortly thereafter did not seek reelection. In local politics, is your best chance to attack without reservation – if you do not think the cattlepeople are doing exactly that, you are as naive as a newborn.

        You have seen th agricultural newspapers and websites, and experienced the foul ad hominem commentary. I official comment I do not use these tactics, but following an affiliative intro, I attempt to get the science, the actual public sympathy for wolves, and ethical points out.
        Unfortunately, news media dealing with wolves does NOT follow public sympathy, but perhaps due to the cowboy/hero myth and “winning” the west still obfuscating the cruel reality of mass slaughter of indigenous humans and wildlife, puts out 3 paragraphs negative toward the wolf to one positive. Studies show this.
        Mexican Wolves.org expressly calls for letters to the editors countering, as politely as possible, the negative views.
        I’m insufficiently polite but I have done about 15 or more in the past 3 months, contacting press from New Mexico to Washington.

        Finally, DFW in ALL known states expressly ignores petitions. They say so in their delineations of their decisionmaking process. So NO petition is sufficient. I continue to sign them, even though I have known this for several years – however, I let the knowledge that they ignore them move me to write letters, study the science and policy, and act when I can.
        Take yoruown counsel – I just offer information I have discovered, and you can bet it’s accurate in the petition-ignoring case as well as in other particulars.


  2. Reblogged this on hocuspocus13 and commented:


  3. So let’s take everything we’ve learned and already know about wolf social structures, ecological roles, miniscule livestock depredation, the demonstrated inadequacy of lethal control measures including culling (in this case it’s outsourced to bloodthirsty [expletive]) and the observable sociopathic nature of the ones champing at the bit to get a tacky [expletive] trophy for their sadistic egos… and throw it out the window for what amounts to a few bucks and pandering to the lowest common denominator of human society… that about what is going on in the heads of the employees of the Oregon F&G? Let me guess, “the wolves are here to stay” right?


  4. The sad thing is that one trophy isn’t enough – these people have roomsful of dead animals. It really is sick.

    What is the rush with delisting every animal? It must be that they are worried about the election next year, and are trying to get as much ‘accomplished’ while they have the advantage. Block them. Then hopefully they will all be kicked out of office or resign early due to ‘other opportunities’. (We’re looking at you here, Interior Dept.)

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Insanity and scientifically illiterate. Ungulates and wolves evolved and lived together for multi-thousands of years without any ungulates failing extinct, far less than from over-zealous human hunters.


  6. I’ve emailed:

    Amy Atwood, Endangered Species Legal Director, Senior Attorney, manages and carries out litigation for the Center’s Endangered Species Program, including efforts to gain protection for species under the Endangered Species Act and to ensure that endangered species are protected and recovered in their native habitats. Before joining the Center in 2007, Amy worked as a staff attorney for the Western Environmental Law Center and as an associate attorney for Meyer & Glitzenstein (now Meyer, Glitzenstein & Crystal). She earned her law degree in 2000 from Vermont Law School and received a bachelor’s in political science from the University of California at Berkeley in 1995.

    Contact: Portland, OR, 503.283.5474, atwood@biologicaldiversity.org,
    Twitter: @atwood55

    Hopefully the Center For Biological Diversity will be able to point out the necessity of the wolves on this planet. The government obviously thinks they know more than God.


  7. Phase 4: When claims of wolf depredation inevitably get out of control, and suddenly people start losing their vision (they are already myopic) and become unable to distinguish between a wolf and a coyote, the entire thing gets scrapped and the wolves inevitably return to protected status through the courts because humans inevitably cannot be trusted to manage anything appropriately?

    Why even go through all of this inevitability?


    • How about throwing the wolf advocates a bone and writing a little sumpin sumpin in there for us? Like no McKittrick rule?


  8. People don’t have to hunt wildlife they have enough to be feed and keep them alive. Ban hunting.


  9. This is not management it’s cull


  10. It’s difficult to accept this decision;I have always enjoyed visiting this state but I won’t be spending any more of my money here.Just too disgusted by this crooked process.So it goes in Oregon where the 1%runs the show.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: